Research Library

Ural, K. (2021). Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi.

A study to examine efficacy and toleration of oral capsule FMT treatment in dogs with atopic dermatitis.


Rojas et al (2022). ACVIM Forum 2022.

A study to examine gut microbiome shifts and clinical signs after oral capsule FMT treatment in cats with chronic enteropathies (diarrhea, vomiting, or constipation).


Ganz, H. (2019). SmartBrief, Fall 2019.

This white paper discusses the promise of fecal transplants in veterinary practice.


Ganz, H. (2018). American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association (AHVMA) Journal, Vol. 52, Fall 2018, 26-3.

The benefits of a healthy microbiome are wide ranging and not limited to involvement with digestion, immune function and as a barrier to pathogenic invasion.


Ganz, H. (2018). Innovative Veterinary Care Journal, Vol. 8(2), 48-51.

This article discusses different strategies and applications for treatment of the microbiome.


Puotinen, C. (2018). Whole Dog Journal, February 2018, 6-11.

Fecal transplants can help dogs with chronic digestive problems recover their health, by helping them build an improved microbiome.


Pereira et al. (2017).  Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, January 2018, 1-5.

Examining diarrhea caused by parvovirus infections in dogs and lowering both the length of treatment and mortality rates through modification of the microbiome.


Jarret et al.  June 2019

Raw meat diets are utilized by some dog owners in the belief that they are healthier for pets and more similar to their ancestral diet; however most research on raw diets has focused on foodborne pathogens, and much less is known about the effect of a raw diet on the overall gut microbiome in dogs.


Gupta, S., Allen-Vercoe, E., & Petrof, O. (2016). Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Vol. 9(2), 229–239.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders.


Chaitman et al. (2016). Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports, 2016:7, 71-74.

Despite the effectiveness of FMT to treat intestinal disorders in humans, in particular recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, there is a paucity of scientific data regarding the application of FMT in veterinary patients. This article outlines key aspects of FMT in small animal practice.


Berlanda et al. (2021). Animals 2021, 11, 1433

Chronic enteropathies are common gastrointestinal diseases in domestic dogs characterised by long-term duration, often impairing quality of life both for pets and owners. In this work, we report the encouraging results of a faecal transplantation on a 9-year-old dog suffering from chronic enteropathy for the last 3 years.


Blyton et al. (2019). Animal Microbiome Vol. 1: 6, 2019

Differences between individuals in their gastrointestinal microbiomes can lead to variation in their ability to persist on particular diets. Koalas are dietary specialists, feeding almost exclusively on Eucalyptus foliage but many individuals will not feed on particular Eucalyptus species that are adequate food for other individuals, even when facing starvation. We undertook a faecal inoculation experiment to test whether a koala’s gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome influences their diet.


Burchell et al. (2019). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Are clinical and paraclinical data helpful in discriminating feline low-grade alimentary lymphoma from inflammatory bowel disease? A prospective study of 36 cases.


Burton et al. (2016). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (JAALAS), 2016; 55(5): 582-7.

Frequently just prior to or at weaning (approximate age, 6 to 8 wk), puppies in research settings often develop diarrheal disease, which may be due, in part, to an immature and unstable intestinal microbiota that is permissive to opportunistic pathogens. The overall objective of this study was to assess whether fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) increased the transmission of a stable maternal microbiota to pups and decreased the incidence of postweaning diarrhea.


Chaitman, J., & Gaschen, F. (2021). Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Vol 51, Issue 1, 2021, pages 219-233.

In canine medicine, FMT administered via enema seems to be beneficial in acute gastrointestinal disorders. Repeat FMT treatments shortened duration to return of formed feces and hospital stay in puppies with parvovirus infections. In addition, a single FMT was superior to metronidazole in the treatment of acute enteritis. The effects of FMT in chronic gastrointestinal disorders are much less well documented, although the existing data consisting of case reports and small case series seem to document that the technique may be beneficial in some instances. However, more data are needed to define which canine patients could be helped by FMT.


Chaitman et al. (2020). Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Vol. 7, 2020.

The aim of this study was to characterize differences in fecal consistency, and fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) treated with either fecal microbiota transplantation as enema (FMT; n = 11) or oral metronidazole (MET; n = 7) for 7 days.


DePeters, E. J., & George, L. W. (2014). Immunology Letters, Vol. 162(2), Part A, December 2014, 69-76.

The aim of this study was to characterize differences in fecal consistency, and fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles in dogs with acute diarrhea (AD) treated with either fecal microbiota transplantation as enema (FMT; n = 11) or oral metronidazole (MET; n = 7) for 7 days.


Diniz et al. (2021). Ciência Rural, Vol. 51(3), 2021.

In dogs, antimicrobial therapy for Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is based solely on metronidazole, leaving limited treatment options in case of recurrent disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used in humans with recurrent CDI, whereas the usefulness of this approach is largely unknown in dogs. In the present study, a dog with a chronic-recurring diarrhea was treated with FMT via colonoscopy.


Dwyer et al. (2019). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol.33(5), 2019.

Antibiotics cause profound fecal microbiome alterations. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administered orally or per enema on fecal microbiome recovery after tylosin treatment of healthy dogs.


Gal et al. (2021). PLoS ONE, Vol. 16(4): e01234.

Canine acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS) has been associated in some studies with Clostridioides perfringens overgrowth and toxin-mediated necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. We aimed to determine the effect of a single fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on clinical scores and fecal microbiomes of 1 and 7 dogs with AHDS from New Zealand and South Africa.


Guo et al. (2020). Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 24, e01234.

Environment, diet, and host phylogeny are the main factors that shape the gut microbiota of humans and animals. Gut microbial communities of captive animals are often drastically altered by disease or anthropogenic activities. These changes in the microbial community profoundly influence animal fitness. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) offers enormous potential to mend a disturbed gut microbiota. In addition, differences generally exist between the gut microbiotas of wild and captive animals. FMT can be used to improve the gut bacterial community structure of candidate endangered animals before releasing them into the wild.


Kerem, U. (2021).

Given the role of the interaction between gut microbiome with8 dermatological diseases, namely “gut-skin axis”, the present author proved that gut restoration should alleviate canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), which was the purpose of the study.


Kopper et al. (2021). Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, Vol. 98, 103360.

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), a technique used to restore normal intestinal microbial communities, has been successful in treating humans with Clostridioides difficile colitis. Subsequently, FMT is being used in veterinary patients with suspected intestinal dysbiosis. Unfortunately, little data are available regarding best practices for FMT in horses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storing manure prepared for equine FMT (MP-FMT) at −20°C for up to 4 weeks and passage through a simulated proximal gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the viability of MP-FMT.


McKinney et al. (2021). PLoS ONE, Vol. 15(3): e0230148.

Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), a treatment for certain gastrointestinal conditions associated with dysbiosis in people, is also empirically employed in horses with colitis. This study used microbiota high-throughput sequencing to compare the fecal microbial profile of healthy horses to that of geriatric microbial transplant recipients experiencing diarrhea and tested whether FMT restores microbiota diversity.


Niina et al. (2019). Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports, Vol. 10.

Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been tested in veterinary medicine as a treatment option for multiple gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there are no reports of changes in the microbial diversity of fecal microbiome after treatment with FMT in canine IBD cases. Moreover, little is known about the long-term efficacy and safety of FMT treatment for dogs. Herein, we present a case of canine intractable IBD treated with repeated, long-term FMT.


Niina et al. (2020). Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health, Vol. 40(2), 98-104.

In human medicine, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. It has also been tested as a treatment for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, only a few studies have focused on the changes in the microbiome following FMT for canine IBD. Here, we performed FMT in nine dogs with IBD using the fecal matter of healthy dogs and investigated the subsequent changes in the fecal microbiome and clinical signs.


Schmitz, S. S. (2022). Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, Vol. 47, 100630.

To assess small animal practitioner's awareness of the relatively novel procedure of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in dogs and their practices, indications, experience and assessment of outcome of this in canine patients. An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed to practitioners in the UK and around the world, assessing demographics of respondents, their selection criteria for donors, their operating procedures and indications when performing FMT in dogs, as well as the observed outcomes.


Sugita, K. (2021). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, Vol. 83(6), 984–989.

A 7-year 6-month-old, castrated male Shiba dog presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and frequent watery diarrhea. Weight loss, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and leukocytosis were detected at the first visit. The dog was diagnosed with non-responsive enteropathy (NRE) based on clinical and histopathological examinations. Since the dog did not respond to the immunosuppressive drugs, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed during the treatment with chlorambucil. A single endoscopic FMT into the cecum and colon drastically recovered clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities and corrected dysbiosis in the dog.


Sugita, K. (2019). BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 15(11).

Successful clinical outcomes of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection have been reported in humans and a marmoset. However, it has been unclear whether oral FMT was effective for the treatment of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea in dogs.